Management of CLN1 Disease: International Clinical Consensus

Erika F. Augustine, Heather R. Adams, Emily de los Reyes, Kristen Drago, Margie Frazier, Norberto Guelbert, Minna Laine, Tanya Levin, Jonathan W. Mink, Miriam Nickel, Danielle Peifer, Angela Schulz, Alessandro Simonati, Meral Topcu, Joni A. Turunen, Ruth Williams, Elaine C. Wirrell, Sharon King

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: CLN1 disease (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 1) is a rare, genetic, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) enzyme deficiency. Clinical features include developmental delay, psychomotor regression, seizures, ataxia, movement disorders, visual impairment, and early death. In general, the later the age at symptom onset, the more protracted the disease course. We sought to evaluate current evidence and to develop expert practice consensus to support clinicians who have not previously encountered patients with this rare disease. Methods: We searched the literature for guidelines and evidence to support clinical practice recommendations. We surveyed CLN1 disease experts and caregivers regarding their experiences and recommendations, and a meeting of experts was conducted to ascertain points of consensus and clinical practice differences. Results: We found a limited evidence base for treatment and no clinical management guidelines specific to CLN1 disease. Fifteen CLN1 disease experts and 39 caregivers responded to the surveys, and 14 experts met to develop consensus-based recommendations. The resulting management recommendations are uniquely informed by family perspectives, due to the inclusion of caregiver and advocate perspectives. A family-centered approach is supported, and individualized, multidisciplinary care is emphasized in the recommendations. Ascertainment of the specific CLN1 disease phenotype (infantile-, late infantile-, juvenile-, or adult-onset) is of key importance in informing the anticipated clinical course, prognosis, and care needs. Goals and strategies should be periodically reevaluated and adapted to patients' current needs, with a primary aim of optimizing patient and family quality of life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-51
Number of pages14
JournalPediatric Neurology
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Clinical care
  • Drug-resistant epilepsy
  • Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
  • Lysosomal storage disease
  • PPT1
  • Palliative care
  • Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1
  • Rare disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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