Who is enrolling? The path to monitoring in type 1 diabetes trialnet’s pathway to prevention

Emily K. Sims, Susan Geyer, Suzanne Bennett Johnson, Ingrid Libman, Laura M. Jacobsen, David Boulware, Lisa E. Rafkin, Della Matheson, Mark A. Atkinson, Henry Rodriguez, Maria Spall, Helena Elding Larsson, Diane K. Wherrett, Carla J. Greenbaum, Jeffrey Krischer, Linda A. DiMeglio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE To better understand potential facilitators of individual engagement in type 1 diabetes natural history and prevention studies through analysis of enrollment data in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine continued engagement of eligible participants at two time points: 1) the return visit after screening to confirm an initial autoantibody-positive (Ab1) test result and 2) the initial oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for enrollment into the monitoring protocol. RESULTS Of 5,387 subjects who screened positive for a single autoantibody (Ab), 4,204 (78%) returned for confirmatory Ab testing. Younger age was associated with increased odds of returning for Ab confirmation (age <12 years vs. >18 years: odds ratio [OR] 2.12, P < 0.0001). Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to return for confirmation, particularly nonwhite non-Hispanic (OR 0.50, P < 0.0001) and Hispanic (OR 0.69, P 5 0.0001) relative to non-Hispanic white subjects. Of 8,234 subjects, 5,442 (66%) were identified as eligible to be enrolled in PTP OGTT monitoring. Here, younger age and identification as multiple Ab1 were associated with increased odds of returning for OGTT monitoring (age <12 years vs. >18 years: OR 1.43, P < 0.0001; multiple Ab1: OR 1.36, P < 0.0001). Parents were less likely to enroll into monitoring than other relatives (OR 0.78, P 5 0.004). Site-specific factors, including site volume and U.S. site versus international site, were also associated with differences in rates of return for Ab1 confirmation and enrollment into monitoring. CONCLUSIONS These data confirm clear differences between successfully enrolled populations and those lost to follow-up, which can serve to identify strategies to increase ongoing participation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2228-2236
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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