What studies are appropriate and necessary for staging gastric adenocarcinoma? Results of an international RAND/UCLA expert panel

Matthew Dixon, Roberta Cardoso, Jill Tinmouth, Lucy Helyer, Calvin Law, Carol Swallow, Lawrence Paszat, Robin McLeod, Rajini Seevaratnam, Alyson Mahar, Natalie G. Coburn, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Ian Chau, Neal Church, Daniel Coit, Christopher H. Crane, Craig Earle, Paul Mansfield, Norman Marcon, Thomas MinderSung Hoon Noh, Geoff Porter, Mitchell C. Posner, Vivek Prachand, Takeshi Sano, Cornelis J.H. Van De Velde, Sandra Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: The approach for staging gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) has not been well defined, with heterogeneity in the application of staging modalities. Methods: Utilizing a RAND/UCLA appropriateness methodology (RAM), a multidisciplinary expert panel of 16 physicians scored 84 GC staging scenarios. Appropriateness was scored from 1 to 9. Median appropriateness scores from 1 to 3 were considered inappropriate, 4-6 uncertain, and 7-9 appropriate. Agreement was reached when 12 or more of 16 panelists scored the scenario similarly. Appropriate scenarios were subsequently scored for necessity. Results: Pretreatment TNM stage determination is necessary. Necessary staging maneuvers include esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD); biopsy of the tumor; documentation of tumor size, description, location, distance from gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), and any GEJ, esophageal, or duodenal involvement; if an EGD report is unclear, surgeons should repeat it to confirm tumor location. Pretreatment radiologic assessment should include computed tomography (CT)-abdomen and CT-pelvis, performed with multidetector CT scanners with 5-mm slices. Laparoscopy should be performed before resection of cT3-cT4 lesions or multivisceral resections. Laparoscopy should include inspection of the stomach, diaphragm, liver, and ovaries. Conclusions: Using a RAM, we describe appropriate and necessary staging tests for the pretreatment staging evaluation of GC, as well as how some of these staging maneuvers should be conducted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-382
Number of pages6
JournalGastric Cancer
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2014


  • Endoscopy
  • Gastric cancer
  • Laparoscopy
  • Radiology
  • Staging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Cancer Research


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