Both symptomatic and genetic, cases with hyperekplexia or startle seizures induced by acoustic stimuli, are previously reported. By contrast, startle response induced by visual stimuli is rare. While visual stimuli are more commonly associated with startle seizures, here we present an 11-year-old girl with epilepsy, motor-mental retardation, and spastic tetraparesis, who had repetitive startle responses by photic stimulation during the electroencephalogram recording, without any spike-and-wave discharges associated with the startles. We report this unique case with startle responses induced both by acoustic and photic stimuli and review the literature related to this exceptionally rare combination of symptoms.
- photic stimulation
- Startle response
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Neurology