Background: In proton therapy dose calculation, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are superior in accuracy but more time consuming, compared to analytical calculations. Graphic processing units (GPUs) are effective in accelerating MC simulations but may suffer thread divergence and racing condition in GPU threads that degrades the computing performance due to the generation of secondary particles during nuclear reactions. Purpose: A novel concept of virtual particle (VP) MC (VPMC) is proposed to avoid simulating secondary particles in GPU-accelerated proton MC dose calculation and take full advantage of the computing power of GPU. Methods: Neutrons and gamma rays were ignored as escaping from the human body; doses of electrons, heavy ions, and nuclear fragments were locally deposited; the tracks of deuterons were converted into tracks of protons. These particles, together with primary and secondary protons, are considered to be the realistic particles. Histories of primary and secondary protons were replaced by histories of multiple VPs. Each VP corresponded to one proton (either primary or secondary). A continuous-slowing-down-approximation model, an ionization model, and a large angle scattering event model corresponding to nuclear interactions were developed for VPs by generating probability distribution functions (PDFs) based on simulation results of realistic particles using MCsquare. For efficient calculations, these PDFs were stored in the Compute Unified Device Architecture textures. VPMC was benchmarked with TOPAS and MCsquare in phantoms and with MCsquare in 13 representative patient geometries. Comparisons between the VPMC calculated dose and dose measured in water during patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) of the selected 13 patients were also carried out. Gamma analysis was used to compare the doses derived from different methods and calculation efficiencies were also compared. Results: Integrated depth dose and lateral dose profiles in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms all matched well among VPMC, TOPAS, and MCsquare calculations. The 3D–3D gamma passing rates with a criterion of 2%/2 mm and a threshold of 10% was 98.49% between MCsquare and TOPAS and 98.31% between VPMC and TOPAS in homogeneous phantoms, and 99.18% between MCsquare and TOPAS and 98.49% between VPMC and TOPAS in inhomogeneous phantoms, respectively. In patient geometries, the 3D–3D gamma passing rates with 2%/2 mm/10% between dose distributions from VPMC and MCsquare were 98.56 ± 1.09% in patient geometries. The 2D–3D gamma analysis with 3%/2 mm/10% between the VPMC calculated dose distributions and the 2D measured planar dose distributions during PSQA was 98.91 ± 0.88%. VPMC calculation was highly efficient and took 2.84 ± 2.44 s to finish for the selected 13 patients running on four NVIDIA Ampere GPUs in patient geometries. Conclusion: VPMC was found to achieve high accuracy and efficiency in proton therapy dose calculation.
- GPU acceleration
- Monte Carlo
- intensity-modulated proton therapy
- real-time adaptive treatment planning
- secondary particles
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging