Vibro-acoustography: Quantification of flow with highly-localized low-frequency acoustic force

Marek Belohlavek, Toshihiko Asanuma, Randall R. Kinnick, James F. Greenleaf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The intersection of two ultrasound beams with slightly different frequencies results in generation of a localized radiation force and stimulates emission of audio signals from targeted objects. Vibro-acoustography uses this phenomenon to probe elastic properties of objects. Vibro-acoustography of contrast microbubbles in degassed water produced quantitative flow measurements from analysis of their acoustic emission. We used a dual-beam transducer generating bursts of 40-kHz vibrations. The vibrations resulted from interference of 3.48-MHz and 3.52-MHz confocal beams intersecting at the center of a thin plastic conduit. We tested flows of 13, 48, 85, and 120 mL/min of contrast microbubbles at concentrations from 1.2 × 105 to 6 × 105 bubbles/mL. The amplitude of the acoustic emission was linear with microbubble concentrations up to a value of 3.6 × 105 bubbles/mL. A replenishment method for microbubble contrast and flow rate analysis was used with radiation force bursts deployed at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2-second pulsing intervals. The relation between the pulsing intervals and the peak amplitude was fitted by an exponential curve and a rate constant calculated for each tested flow rate. The rate constant values were linearly correlated with the tested flows. The vibro-acoustography method provides objective, quantitative, and highly-localized assessment of flow using contrast microbubbles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-256
Number of pages8
JournalUltrasonic Imaging
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2001


  • Contrast media
  • Flow
  • Perfusion
  • Ultrasonics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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