Ventricular Volume Dynamics During the Development of Adult Chronic Communicating Hydrocephalus in a Rodent Model

Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Gabriel Pinilla-Monsalve, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Kumiko Oishi, Jamie Robison, Joshua A. Crawford, Mikhail Pletnikov, Jiadi Xu, Olivier Baledént, Armelle Lokossou, Alice L. Hung, Ari M. Blitz, Jennifer Lu, Daniel A. Herzka, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Kenichi Oishi, Susumu Mori, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Daniele Rigamonti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: The pathophysiology of normal-pressure hydrocephalus and the correlation with its symptomatology is not well understood. Objective: To monitor and evaluate the enlargement patterns of the ventricular system for each ventricle and its correlation with the presenting symptoms. Methods: Bilateral kaolin injection into the subarachnoid space overlying the cranial convexities was done in 18 adult rats. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on an 11.7-T scanner 15, 60, 90, and 120 days after injection. Volumes of the ventricular system were measured for each ventricle and correlated with biweekly behavioral findings. Results: There was a progressive increase in the ventricular volume for the lateral ventricles since day 15 in the kaolin-injected animals. There was a nonsignificant trend in volume growth for the third ventricle, but its enlargement was synchronous with the lateral ventricles. No significant change for the fourth ventricle. No symptoms were detected in the first 60 days. Association was found between the ventricular volume and locomotor changes. In addition, the odds of locomotor symptoms increased by 3% for every additional cubic millimeter of volume in the left (P < 0.001) and right (P = 0.023) ventricles, and for the total magnetic resonance imaging volume by 1% (P = 0.013). Conclusions: Expansion of the lateral ventricles maintained similar proportions over time, accompanied by a synchronous third ventricular expansion with less proportion and a nonsignificant fourth enlargement. Lateral ventricles enlarged most in those animals that were to develop late locomotor deterioration. Further research using this animal model combined with different radiologic imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion studies, is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e1120-e1127
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • Animal model
  • Behavioral changes
  • Kaolin
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • Ventricular volume enlargement
  • Volumetric measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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