Variceal Ligation, Sclerotherapy, and Other Hemostatic Techniques for Varices and Other Lesions

Louis Michel Wong Kee Song

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Endoscopic therapy plays an important role in the management of gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage. Band ligation is the preferred endoscopic modality for the treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and for primary and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices. Endoscopic sclerotherapy is associated with a higher rate of complications than variceal ligation, and its role is limited to the control of active bleeding when band ligation is technically difficult or fails. Cyanoacrylate injection is the endoscopic treatment of choice for bleeding fundal varices since band ligation and sclerotherapy are associated with high rebleeding rates. Endoscopic therapy is not effective for bleeding portal hypertensive gastropathy, but can be beneficial for gastric vascular ectasia. For the latter, argon plasma coagulation is considered first-line therapy, but cryotherapy and band ligation are promising alternative treatment modalities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTextbook of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)1405191821, 9781405191821
StatePublished - Apr 16 2012


  • Argon plasma coagulation
  • Band ligation
  • Cryotherapy
  • Cyanoacrylates
  • Gastric antral vascular ectasia
  • Gastroesophageal varices
  • Portal hypertensive gastropathy
  • Sclerotherapy
  • Variceal bleeding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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