Validation of the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score 31 in the German language

Max Josef Hilz, Ruihao Wang, Wolfgang Singer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Composite Autonomic Symptom Score 31 (COMPASS 31) is a validated, 31-item self-assessment questionnaire assessing autonomic symptoms in six domains, orthostatic intolerance, vasomotor, secretomotor, gastrointestinal, bladder, and pupillomotor function. So far, there is no validated German COMPASS 31 version. This study aimed at developing and validating a German COMPASS 31. Methods: Two autonomic experts with command of German and English independently translated the English COMPASS 31 into German. One agreed-upon German version was translated back into English to assure conformity with the original version. Twenty patients with possible autonomic symptoms and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy persons completed the English and German COMPASS 31 in a randomized order with a 4-week interval. To evaluate reliability of the German COMPASS 31, total scores and sub-scores of the domains assessed with the German version were correlated with corresponding scores of the English version using Pearson’s or Spearman’s test. The Cronbach alpha-coefficient evaluated the internal consistency of the questions. Total- and sub-scores of both COMPASS 31 versions were compared between patients and controls by analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis (significance: p < 0.05). Results: Total scores and sub-scores of the German and English COMPASS 31 correlated significantly (p < 0.001) and closely (correlation coefficients: 0.757–0.934). Cronbach alpha-coefficients were above 0.7 in all domains except for the secretomotor domain. In the German and English COMPASS 31, total scores were significantly higher in patients than controls. Conclusions: The German COMPASS 31 is reliable, internally consistent, and valid to detect and quantify autonomic symptoms in patients with neurological disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-371
Number of pages7
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Autonomic symptoms
  • COMPASS 31
  • German validation
  • Self-questionnaire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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