Understanding the impact of sex and gender in Alzheimer's disease: A call to action

Rebecca A. Nebel, Neelum T. Aggarwal, Lisa L. Barnes, Aimee Gallagher, Jill M. Goldstein, Kejal Kantarci, Monica P. Mallampalli, Elizabeth C. Mormino, Laura Scott, Wai Haung Yu, Pauline M. Maki, Michelle M. Mielke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

132 Scopus citations


Introduction: Precision medicine methodologies and approaches have advanced our understanding of the clinical presentation, development, progression, and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. However, sex and gender have not yet been adequately integrated into many of these approaches. Methods: The Society for Women's Health Research Interdisciplinary Network on AD, comprised of an expert panel of scientists and clinicians, reviewed ongoing and published research related to sex and gender differences in AD. Results: The current review is a result of this Network's efforts and aims to: (1) highlight the current state-of-the-science in the AD field on sex and gender differences; (2) address knowledge gaps in assessing sex and gender differences; and (3) discuss 12 priority areas that merit further research. Discussion: The exclusion of sex and gender has impeded faster advancement in the detection, treatment, and care of AD across the clinical spectrum. Greater attention to these differences will improve outcomes for both sexes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1171-1183
Number of pages13
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2018


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Biomarkers
  • Epidemiology
  • Gender
  • Hormones
  • Men
  • Menopause
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Risk factors
  • Sex
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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