Ultrasound markers for complex gastroschisis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Rui Gilberto Ferreira, Carolina Rodrigues Mendonça, Carolina Leão de Moraes, Fernanda Sardinha de Abreu Tacon, Lelia Luanne Gonçalves Ramos, Natalia Cruz E Melo, Lourenço Sbragia, Waldemar Naves Do Amaral, Rodrigo Ruano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Although gastroschisis is often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound, there is still a gap in the literature about which prenatal ultrasound markers can predict complex gastroschisis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the ultrasound markers that characterize complex gastroschisis. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according to the guidelines of PRISMA. The protocol was registered (PROSPERO ID CRD42020211685). Meta-analysis was displayed graphically on Forest plots, which estimate prevalence rates and risk ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, using STATA version 15.0. The combined prevalence of intestinal complications in fetuses with complex gastroschisis was 27.0%, with a higher prevalence of atresia (about 48%), followed by necrosis (about 25%). The prevalence of deaths in newborns with complex gastroschisis was 15.0%. The predictive ultrasound markers for complex gastroschisis were intraabdominal bowel dilatation (IABD) (RR 3.01, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.07; I2 = 15.7%), extra-abdominal bowel dilatation (EABD) (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.39; I2 = 77.1%), and polyhydramnios (RR 3.81, 95% CI 2.09 to 6.95; I2 = 0.0%). This review identified that IABD, EABD, and polyhydramnios were considered predictive ultrasound markers for complex gastroschisis. However, evidence regarding gestational age at the time of diagnosis is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5215
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Congenital anomalies
  • Fetal intervention
  • Fetal surgery
  • Gastroschisis
  • Prenatal diagnosis
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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