Two-dimensional nanomaterials-added dynamism in 3D printing and bioprinting of biomedical platforms: Unique opportunities and challenges

Bipin Gaihre, Maria Astudillo Potes, Vitalii Serdiuk, Maryam Tilton, Xifeng Liu, Lichun Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The nanomaterials research spectrum has seen the continuous emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials over the years. These highly anisotropic and ultrathin materials have found special attention in developing biomedical platforms for therapeutic applications, biosensing, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine. Three-dimensional (3D) printing and bioprinting technologies have emerged as promising tools in medical applications. The convergence of 2D nanomaterials with 3D printing has extended the application dynamics of available biomaterials to 3D printable inks and bioinks. Furthermore, the unique properties of 2D nanomaterials have imparted multifunctionalities to 3D printed constructs applicable to several biomedical applications. 2D nanomaterials such as graphene and its derivatives have long been the interest of researchers working in this area. Beyond graphene, a range of emerging 2D nanomaterials, such as layered silicates, black phosphorus, transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, hexagonal boron nitride, and MXenes, are being explored for the multitude of biomedical applications. Better understandings on both the local and systemic toxicity of these materials have also emerged over the years. This review focuses on state-of-art 3D fabrication and biofabrication of biomedical platforms facilitated by 2D nanomaterials, with the comprehensive summary of studies focusing on the toxicity of these materials. We highlight the dynamism added by 2D nanomaterials in the printing process and the functionality of printed constructs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number121507
StatePublished - May 2022


  • 2D nanomaterials
  • 3D bioprinting
  • 3D printing
  • Therapeutic platforms
  • Tissue engineering
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Bioengineering
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials


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