Trends in Therapy and Outcomes Associated With Respiratory Failure in Patients Admitted to the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit

Jacob C. Jentzer, Carlos L. Alviar, P. Elliott Miller, Thomas Metkus, Courtney E. Bennett, David A. Morrow, Gregory W. Barsness, Kianoush B. Kashani, Ognjen Gajic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To describe the epidemiology, outcomes, and temporal trends of respiratory failure in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of 2,986 unique Mayo Clinic CICU patients from 2007 to 2018 with respiratory failure. Temporal trends were analyzed, along with hospital and 1-year mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine adjusted hospital mortality trends. Results: The prevalence of respiratory failure in the CICU increased from 15% to 38% during the study period (P < 0.001 for trend). Among patients with respiratory failure, the utilization of invasive ventilation decreased and noninvasive ventilation modalities increased over time. Hospital mortality and 1-year mortality were 24% and 54%, respectively, with variation according to the type of respiratory support (highest among patients receiving invasive ventilation alone: 35% and 46%, respectively). Hospital mortality was highest among patients with concomitant cardiac arrest and/or shock (52% for patients with both). Hospital mortality decreased in the overall population from 35% to 25% (P < 0.001 for trend), but was unchanged among patients receiving positive-pressure ventilation. Conclusions: The prevalence of respiratory failure in CICU more than doubled during the last decade. The use of noninvasive respiratory support increased, while overall mortality declined over time. Cardiac arrest and shock accounted for the majority of deaths. Further research is needed to optimize the outcomes of high-risk CICU patients with respiratory failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)543-554
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Intensive Care Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • cardiac intensive care unit
  • mechanical ventilation
  • mortality
  • positive-pressure ventilation
  • respiratory failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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