Trends in Early Mortality From Multiple Myeloma: A Population-Based Analysis

Vivek Kumar, Meghna Ailawadhi, Navnita Dutta, Mays Abdulazeez, Chander Shekher Aggarwal, Gerson Quintero, Mizba Baksh, Vivek Roy, Taimur Sher, Victoria Alegria, Aneel Paulus, Asher Chanan-Khan, Sikander Ailawadhi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: Despite significant improvements in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment modalities, patient mortality early in the course of disease has been identified as a persistent phenomenon with variable reported rates and causes. Trends in early mortality over time have not been clearly defined. Patients and Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify adult patients with MM between 1975 and 2015. Association of available sociodemographic factors with all-cause and MM-specific early mortality (death within 6 months after the diagnosis of MM) was conducted by multivariate analysis. Trends in early mortality were studied by joinpoint regression analysis. Results: Of the 90,975 MM cases included in this analysis, early mortality was noted in 21%. Median age was 68 years overall, and 75 years for the early mortality cohort (P < .01). The most common causes of death for early mortality were MM itself, followed by cardiovascular, infections, and renal failure. Male gender, “other” race/ethnicity group, advancing age, and West, Midwest or South regions (reference Northeast) were associated with increased risk of both all-cause and MM-specific early mortality. Joinpoint regression analysis of trends data resulted in 1 joinpoint for all-cause 6-month mortality (2006-2015), while 2 joinpoints were noticed for myeloma-specific 6-month mortality (1975-1987 and 2003-2015). Conclusion: Early mortality remains a significant unmet need for MM patient care, despite improving trends in recent years. Understanding the factors associated with early mortality can help develop individualized plans of patient care and mitigate circumstances that may contribute to early mortality among MM patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e449-e455
JournalClinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • 6-month mortality
  • Cause of death
  • Disparity
  • SEER
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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