Treatment of Amyloid Light Chain Cardiac Amyloidosis: Systematic Review and Future Directions

Dunya Alsomali, Dania Mohty, Martha Grogan, Angela Dispenzieri, Mahmoud Aljurf, Shaji Kumar, Morie A. Gertz, Amr Hanbali, Shahrukh K. Hashmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Several treatment strategies for amyloid light chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) have been described in the literature; however, there is no consensus about the optimal approach to AL-CA. Objective: We conducted this systematic review to summarize current evidence from published studies about the safety and efficacy of various treatment regimens for patients with AL-CA, mainly focusing on autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and heart transplant. Methods: An electronic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO, and CINAHL Plus was conducted through December 2019 using the relevant keywords and prespecified MeSH terminology. Records were screened, and eligible studies were selected and narrative-ly discussed. Data on the hematologic and cardiac responses as well as the safety of the treatment regimens were extracted and synthesized narratively in the context of the systematic review. Results: Thirty published articles were included in this systematic review. The most commonly used first-line treatment in the included studies was bortezomib-based therapy followed by high-dose melphalan and ASCT, with recent evidence of improved outcome with the addition of daratumumab. Heart transplant was found to extend survival for selected patients who were not eligible for ASCT; however, it was found to affect the patients’ tolerance of further chemotherapy in some studies. Published data on longterm outcomes with immunomodulatory agents were scarce. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests several possible regimens for the treatment of AL-CA. Effective treatment approaches for AL-CA include induction therapy with bortezomib-based or immunotherapy-based combinations in moderate/severe forms of cardiac involvement, followed by high-dose melphalan and ASCT in eligible patients, and heart transplant for selected severe cases. Therefore, we highlight the necessity of conducting well-designed, randomized controlled trials to provide evidence about the efficacy of these drugs with respect to ASCT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-618
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Amyloidosis
  • cardiac
  • heart transplant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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