TRAPPC9-CDG: A novel congenital disorder of glycosylation with dysmorphic features and intellectual disability

Silvia Radenkovic, Diego Martinelli, Yuebo Zhang, Graeme J. Preston, Arianna Maiorana, Alessandra Terracciano, Maria Lisa Dentici, Elisa Pisaneschi, Antonio Novelli, Wasantha Ranatunga, Anna N. Ligezka, Bart Ghesquière, David R. Deyle, Tamas Kozicz, Filippo Pinto e Vairo, Peter Witters, Eva Morava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: TRAPPC9 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder mainly associated with intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, and obesity. Previously, TRAPPC9 deficiency has not been associated with biochemical abnormalities. Methods: Exome sequencing was performed in 3 individuals with ID and dysmorphic features. N-Glycosylation analyses were performed in the patients’ blood samples to test for possible congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). TRAPPC9 gene, TRAPPC9 protein expression, and N-glycosylation markers were assessed in patient fibroblasts. Complementation with wild-type TRAPPC9 and immunofluorescence studies to assess TRAPPC9 expression and localization were performed. The metabolic consequences of TRAPPC9 deficiency were evaluated using tracer metabolomics. Results: All 3 patients carried biallelic missense variants in TRAPPC9 and presented with an N-glycosylation defect in blood, consistent with CDG type I. Extensive investigations in patient fibroblasts corroborated TRAPPC9 deficiency and an N-glycosylation defect. Tracer metabolomics revealed global metabolic changes with several affected glycosylation-related metabolites. Conclusion: We identified 3 TRAPPC9 deficient patients presenting with ID, dysmorphic features, and abnormal glycosylation. On the basis of our findings, we propose that TRAPPC9 deficiency could lead to a CDG (TRAPPC9-CDG). The finding of abnormal glycosylation in these patients is highly relevant for diagnosis, further elucidation of the pathophysiology, and management of the disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)894-904
Number of pages11
JournalGenetics in Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation
  • Dysmorphic features
  • Intellectual disability
  • N-glycosylation
  • TRAPPC9 deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)


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