Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Adolescent Depression

Paul E. Croarkin, Frank P. MacMaster

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Adolescent depression is a substantial global public health problem that contributes to academic failure, occupational impairment, deficits in social functioning, substance use disorders, teen pregnancy, and completed suicide. Existing treatment options often have suboptimal results and uncertain safety profiles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a promising, brain-based intervention for adolescents with depression. Existing work has methodological weaknesses, and larger, neurodevelopmentally informed studies are urgently needed. Treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation may modulate cortical GABAergic and glutamatergic imbalances. Future study will inform dosing approaches for TMS based on GABAergic and glutamatergic biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-43
Number of pages11
JournalChild and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2019


  • Adolescent
  • Brain stimulation
  • Depression
  • GABA
  • Glutamate
  • Neuromodulation
  • TMS
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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