Transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistula: A 21-year experience

Bassim El-Sabawi, Mohammed A. Al-Hijji, Mackram F. Eleid, Allison K. Cabalka, Naser M. Ammash, Joseph A. Dearani, Haraldur Bjarnason, David R. Holmes, Charanjit S. Rihal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of transcatheter coronary artery fistula (CAF) closure and to identify anatomic/procedural factors that may impact outcomes. Background: Due to the rarity of CAF, reported experience with transcatheter closure remains limited and anatomic and procedural factors that may lead to unsuccessful closure, complications, or recanalization of CAF are unclear. Methods: All patients who underwent transcatheter CAF closure at Mayo Clinic from 1997 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. CAF anatomic characteristics, procedural techniques, and clinical/angiographic outcomes were assessed. Results: A total of 45 patients underwent transcatheter closure of 56 CAFs. The most commonly used devices were embolization coils in 40 (71.4%) CAFs, vascular occluders in 10 (17.8%), or covered stent in 2 (3.6%). Acute procedural success with no or trivial residual flow occurred in 50 (89.3%) CAFs. Residual flow was small in three (5.4%) and large in three (5.4%). Eight (17.8%) patients had complications, including device migration in three, intracranial hemorrhage from anticoagulation in one, and myocardial infarction (MI) in four. MI was a result of covered stent thrombosis or stagnation of flow after closure of large distal CAF. Twenty-two patients with 27 CAFs had follow-up angiography after successful index procedure at median time of 423 (IQ 97-1348) days. Of these, 23 (85.2%) had no/trace flow and 4 had large flow from recanalization. Conclusions: Transcatheter CAF closure is associated with a favorable acute procedural success and complication rate in selected patients. Procedural success and risk for complication are highly dependent on CAF anatomy and closure technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-319
Number of pages9
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020


  • adults
  • coil
  • congenital heart disease
  • coronary anomaly
  • device
  • embolization
  • fistula
  • shunts
  • transcatheter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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