Many proteins regulating coagulation, including factor IX, factor XI, Antithrombin-III, Protein C and Protein S are deficient or decreased in activity in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Because of the imbalance of coagulation and anticoagulation factors, some patients develop acute vascular events, such as thrombosis. Identifying patients with increased risk for thrombotic events could prevent serious complications and even mortality. We performed a systematic review on patients diagnosed with the most common CDG form; PMM2-CDG, reported between 1990 and 2012 in medical literature. We also evaluated our PMM2-CDG patient-cohort of 15 patients. In total, based on the availability of comprehensive clinical descriptions, 100 patients were included in the study. Patients with and without thrombotic events were compared based on the alterations of the following glycosylated coagulation and anticoagulation factors: Antithrombin-III, Protein C, Protein S, factors IX and XI. We also assessed the global hemostasis, family history and provoking events. In the group of 100 PMM2-CDG patients 14 had suffered a venous or arterial thrombotic event. Low activity of several anticoagulation factors correlated with thrombotic events. Relatively high factor IX and XI activities were not associated with thrombosis. Prolonged PT and aPTT did not seem to protect against thrombosis in patients. Surgical procedures were frequently associated with thrombotic events. Based on the association of thrombosis and surgery in PMM2-CDG we advise to avoid elective surgical procedures in PMM2-CDG patients. Easily preventable risk factors like immobility should be treated with regular physiotherapy. We suggest a yearly follow-up for Antithrombin-III and Protein C levels and parent education for early thrombotic signs in CDG.
- Coagulation factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology