Thrombosis in multiple myeloma: Risk estimation by induction regimen and association with overall survival

Charalampos Charalampous, Utkarsh Goel, Prashant Kapoor, Moritz Binder, Francis K. Buadi, David Dingli, Angela Dispenzieri, Amie L. Fonder, Morie A. Gertz, Wilson Gonsalves, Suzanne R. Hayman, Miriam A. Hobbs, Yi L. Hwa, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Martha Q. Lacy, Nelson Leung, Yi Lin, Rahma Warsame, Robert A. Kyle, S. Vincent RajkumarShaji Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lenalidomide-containing (R) triplet and quadruplet regimens are the standard of care for multiple myeloma (MM) and have been shown to increase the risk of thrombosis. The association between thromboembolism (TE) and survival in the novel multidrug era is not yet delineated. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of TE during the first year of MM diagnosis, its association with the type of induction regimen, and its impact on overall survival. We studied 672 newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients who received a triplet or quadruplet lenalidomide-based induction at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester. TE was diagnosed in 83 patients (12.4%). Of these, 56 (8.3%) had a deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 23 (3.4%) had a pulmonary embolism (PE) with or without the DVT, and 4 (0.6%) patients had a stroke. Carfilzomib-Rd (KRd) had the highest risk of TE (21.1%, 18/85), followed by quadruplets (11.1%, 5/45), bortezomib-Rd (9.6%, 51/531), and 0/11 (0%), treated with other lenalidomide-containing regimens. The difference in TE risk between KRd and the other regimens was statistically significant (OR = 2.6, p <.01). Nine patients developed a TE before being exposed to any treatment. Survival was significantly lower among patients that developed a TE (66 vs. 133 months, p <.01). The association of TE with reduced survival demonstrated in univariate analysis (HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.6–3.3) was maintained in the multivariable analysis adjusted for high-risk interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), sex, age, receipt of an upfront transplant, the response at induction, and the International Staging System (ISS) (HR = 2.61, CI = 1.74–3.9). We conclude that TE is an important aspect of MM management, and effective management is especially relevant in the novel treatment era.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-420
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of hematology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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