Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging and Printing in Anatomic Pathology

Melanie C. Bois, Jonathan M. Morris, Jennifer M. Boland, Nicole L. Larson, Emily F. Scharrer, Marie Christine Aubry, Joseph J. Maleszewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is increasingly being incorporated into a variety of medical specialties: surgery and radiology being but two prominent examples. Image-intensive disciplines, such as anatomic pathology (AP), represent excellent potential candidates for further exploration of this innovative technology. Multiple potential use cases exist within AP, involving patient care, education, and research. These use cases broadly include direct utilization of the 3D digital assets for viewing on a 2D screen, populating 3D extended reality platforms (virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality) as well as generation of 3D printed photorealistic specimen models. Herein, these use cases are explored with specific regard to our experiences and yet unrealized potential. Future directions and considerations are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number22
JournalJournal of Pathology Informatics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Augmented reality
  • photogrammetry
  • printing
  • scanning
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications


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