Therapy of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Treatment approaches for nonresponders

Jeffrey A. Cohen, Jonathan L. Carter, R. Philip Kinkel, Steven R. Schwid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


There is increasing impetus to begin disease-modifying therapy for relapsing multiple (R-MS) early, before the development of irreversible tissue damage and resultant permanent disability. However, all of the currently-approved therapies for relapsing multiple sclerosis are only partially effective for patients as a group. Treatment failure can be due to noncompliance with therapy, intolerable adverse effects, the development of neutralizing antibodies, or non-responsive disease. Neurologists managing patients on disease-modifying therapy for R-MS must remain vigilant for these issues and take appropriate action when necessary. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-36
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of neuroimmunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 1999


  • Adverse effects
  • Combination therapy
  • Compliance
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Neutralizing antibodies
  • Treatment failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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