Therapeutic Applications of Invasive Neuromodulation in Children and Adolescents

Deniz Doruk Camsari, Melissa Kirkovski, Paul E. Croarkin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Although the application of noninvasive brain stimulation methods to children and adolescents has been frequently studied in depression, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, invasive methods such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) have received less attention. DBS and VNS have demonstrated utility in young patients especially for dystonia and epilepsy. VNS has FDA clearance for intractable epilepsy in patients aged 4 years and older. Further measured work with invasive neuromodulation for children and adolescents with debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders could provide new treatment options and expand current knowledge base of neurocircuitry across development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)479-483
Number of pages5
JournalPsychiatric Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2018


  • Adolescents
  • Children
  • DBS
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Invasive brain stimulation
  • Neuromodulation
  • VNS
  • Vagal nerve stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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