The Role of Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) Mutation in the Diagnosis and Management of Myeloid Neoplasms

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Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a multifunctional protein with both proliferative and growth-suppressive roles in the cell. In humans, NPM1 is involved in tumorigenesis via chromosomal translocations, deletions, or mutation. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutated NPM1, a distinct diagnostic entity by the current WHO Classification of myeloid neoplasm, represents the most common diagnostic subtype in AML and is associated with a favorable prognosis. The persistence of NPM1 mutation in AML at relapse makes this mutation an ideal target for minimal measurable disease (MRD) detection. The clinical implication of this is far-reaching because NPM1-mutated AML is currently classified as being of standard risk, with the best treatment strategy (transplantation versus chemotherapy) yet undefined. Myeloid neoplasms with NPM1 mutations and <20% blasts are characterized by an aggressive clinical course and a rapid progression to AML. The pathological classification of these cases remains controversial. Future studies will determine whether NPM1 gene mutation may be sufficient for diagnosing NPM1-mutated AML independent of the blast count. This review aims to summarize the role of NPM1 in normal cells and in human cancer and discusses its current role in clinical management of AML and related myeloid neoplasms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Minimal residual disease (MRD)
  • Mutation
  • Myeloid neoplasm
  • Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology


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