The role of autologous stem cell transplantation in amyloidosis

Iuliana Vaxman, Angela Dispenzieri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been an essential part of the treatment armamentarium in light chain (AL) amyloidosis for several decades. Patients who achieve a complete hematologic response following ASCT have a long overall survival. However, only 1 randomized controlled trial compared ASCT with the standard of care used at the time, which was melphalan and dexamethasone, and the results did not support the use of ASCT in AL amyloidosis. These results are of limited significance due to the unexpected high transplant-related mortality (TRM) (24%). TRM is a major concern in AL amyloidosis, but its incidence can be lessened by better patient selection and by patients receiving ASCT in specialized centers. ASCT in AL amyloidosis is performed only in selected patients; approximately 20% of patients with AL amyloidosis are transplant eligible up front or after bortezomib (Velcade) based conditioning. The introduction of newer agents such as bortezomib and daratumumab (Darzalex), which lead to deep responses and have good safety profiles, encourage revisiting the benefit and timing of ASCT in the modern era. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of eligibility criteria for ASCT in AL amyloidosis, conditioning dosing, efficacy in terms of hematologic and organ response, and future areas of research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)471-478
Number of pages8
JournalONCOLOGY (United States)
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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