The Porcine Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Renal Insufficiency

Sanjay Misra, Jeffery D. Gordon, Alex A. Fu, James F. Glockner, Alejandro R. Chade, Jaywant Mandrekar, Lilach Lerman, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Background: The purpose of the present study was to develop and characterize a porcine model of chronic renal insufficiency created by renal artery embolization. Methods: The model was created using 42 castrated juvenile male pigs (7-8 months old) in two parts (pilot (N = 10) group, definitive (N = 26) group, and control group (N = 6). In the pilot group, the embolization procedure was optimized with respect to the size of polyvinyl acrylide (PVA) particles, coils, and amount of kidney embolized. The animals were followed serially for 4 weeks after the embolization procedure to determine the renal function and hypertensive response. In the definitive group, these results were extended to later time points and a left total nephrectomy and a right partial nephrectomy (remnant) were performed and these animals were followed for 28 to 84 days. Results: The kidney function after the embolization was characterized by acute deterioration in renal function, followed by improvement, and "stable" chronic renal insufficiency with statistically significant elevation in creatinine and BUN being observed until day 42. The mean arterial blood pressure remained significantly elevated until day 7 after which it began to decrease to pre-embolization value. The remnant kidney developed fibrosis in the tublointerstitial compartment as it hypertrophied and increased its weight which remained significantly elevated after embolization. Conclusions: A reproducible remnant kidney model of chronic renal insufficiency in pigs was developed. In this model, stable renal insufficiency develops by 4 weeks that lasts until 12 weeks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)370-379
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 2006


  • chronic kidney disease
  • hemodialysis
  • remnant kidney model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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