The Pathogenesis and Long-Term Consequences of COVID-19 Cardiac Injury

Bhurint Siripanthong, Babken Asatryan, Thomas C. Hanff, Salman R. Chatha, Mohammed Y. Khanji, Fabrizio Ricci, Daniele Muser, Victor A. Ferrari, Saman Nazarian, Pasquale Santangeli, Rajat Deo, Leslie T. Cooper, Saidi A. Mohiddin, C. Anwar A. Chahal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The mechanisms of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)–related myocardial injury comprise both direct viral invasion and indirect (hypercoagulability and immune-mediated) cellular injuries. Some patients with COVID-19 cardiac involvement have poor clinical outcomes, with preliminary data suggesting long-term structural and functional changes. These include persistent myocardial fibrosis, edema, and intraventricular thrombi with embolic events, while functionally, the left ventricle is enlarged, with a reduced ejection fraction and new-onset arrhythmias reported in a number of patients. Myocarditis post-COVID-19 vaccination is rare but more common among young male patients. Larger studies, including prospective data from biobanks, will be useful in expanding these early findings and determining their validity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)294-308
Number of pages15
JournalJACC: Basic to Translational Science
Issue number3P1
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • COVID-19
  • athlete
  • cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging
  • inflammation
  • myocardial injury
  • myocarditis
  • sudden cardiac death
  • troponin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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