The Metabolism of Pyrazoloacridine (NSC 366140) by Cytochromes P450 and Flavin Monooxygenase in Human Liver Microsomes

Joel M. Reid, Denise L. Walker, Jennifer K. Miller, Linda M. Benson, Andrew J. Tomlinson, Stephen Naylor, April L. Blajeski, Patricia M. LoRusso, Matthew M. Ames

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Pyrazoloacridine (PZA) is an experimental antitumor agent presently under investigation for treatment of solid tumors on the basis of its unique mechanism of action and selectivity for human solid tumor xenograft in mice. Using capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have identified three oxidative PZA metabolites, 9-desmethyl-PZA, N-demethyl-PZA, and PZA N-oxide. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in PZA metabolism were characterized by studies with CYP chemical inhibitors, correlation of marker activities for selected CYPs with formation of the metabolites using a human liver panel, and PZA metabolism by cDNA-expressed CYPs. 9-Desmethyl-PZA formation was catalyzed by CYP1A2, whereas N-demethyl-PZA formation was catalyzed by CYP3A4. PZA N-oxide formation was catalyzed by flavin monooxygenase (FMO) rather than CYP, as determined by studies with chemical inhibitors of FMO and metabolism by cDNA-expressed human flavin monooxygenase. After administration of [10b-14C]PZA to mice, six urinary metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography UV and radiochromatograms including 9-desmethyl-PZA, N-demethyl-PZA, and PZA N-oxide. Trace concentrations of 9-desmethyl-PZA and PZA N-oxide were detected in mouse plasma. PZA N-oxide and N-demethyl-PZA were detected in urine from patients after PZA administration. PZA, 9-desmethyl-PZA, and PZA N-oxide inhibited growth of A375 human melanoma cells. IC50 values were 0.17, 0.11, and 7.0 μM, respectively, for the three molecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1471-1480
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'The Metabolism of Pyrazoloacridine (NSC 366140) by Cytochromes P450 and Flavin Monooxygenase in Human Liver Microsomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this