Recipients of lung transplants are at high risk of infectious complications. We investigated the epidemiology of infections after lung transplantation and determined their impact on survival. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent lung transplantation at Mayo Clinic (Rochester) during 1990-2005. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazard modeling. Results: Sixty-nine lung transplants were performed during the 16-yr study period. The mean (±SD) patient age was 50.5 ± 9.7 yr; 45% were male. During the mean (±SD) follow-up period of 1188 (±1288) d, the cumulative percentage of patients with infections were: bacteria (52%), cytomegalovirus (CMV) (49%), other viruses (32%), fungi (19%), mycobacteria (7%), and Pneumocystis jiroveci (1%). The median survival time after lung transplantation was 5.02 yr. Kaplan-Meier estimation of one-, three-, and five-yr survival was 80%, 61%, and 50%, respectively. Overall, 37 (54%) patients died due to graft rejection and failure (35%), invasive fungal diseases (16%), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other malignancies (14%), cardiovascular diseases (5%), CMV disease (3%), bacterial infection (3%), or other causes (24%). Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier estimation showed that invasive fungal disease (Aspergillus sp., n = 9, Candida sp., n = 2, Alternaria sp., n = 1, Rhizopus sp., n = 1, and/or Mucor sp., n = 1) was significantly associated with mortality (p = 0.0104). After adjusting for age and graft rejection, invasive fungal disease remains a significant predictor of mortality (p = 0.0262). Conclusion: Invasive fungal disease is significantly associated with all-cause mortality after lung transplantation. An aggressive antifungal preventive strategy may lead to improved survival after lung transplantation.
- Lung transplantation
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