The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST)

Jon O. Ebbert, Christi A. Patten, Darrell R. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Scopus citations


Few nicotine dependence measures have been developed for smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Existing measures are limited by the requirement to rate the nicotine content of ST brands for which data is scarce or non-existent. We modified the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) for ST users, referred to this scale as the FTND-ST, and evaluated its characteristics in a population of 42 ST users. The correlation between the FTND-ST total score and the serum cotinine concentrations was 0.53 (p < 0.001). Internal consistency reliability assessed using the coefficient alpha was 0.47. Correlations and the coefficient alpha are similar to those reported for commonly used nicotine dependence measures. Development and refinement of nicotine dependence measures for ST users are essential steps in order to advance the field of ST research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1716-1721
Number of pages6
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2006


  • Dependence measure
  • Nicotine
  • Smokeless tobacco
  • Tobacco alkaloid
  • Tobacco use disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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