The effect of patient-facing applications on positive airway pressure therapy adherence: A systematic review

Gaja F. Shaughnessy, Timothy I. Morgenthaler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Study Objectives: Many patients struggle with adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy for sleep apnea. In this systematic review we examined the effect that patient-facing applications (PFA)—web-based applications that interact directly with the patient—have on PAP adherence. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS databases was performed. We looked for studies where: (1) patients were adults with sleep apnea initiating PAP therapy for the first time; (2) the intervention was a PFA that incorporated individual PAP use data; (3) the comparison was usual and/or telemedicine care, and (4) outcomes of objective PAP adherence data were recorded. Results: Seven studies were identified (two randomized trials, one prospective cohort trial, four retrospective cohort studies). Cumulatively the studies enrolled 304,328 patients, with individual enrollment ranging between 61 and 172,678 patients. Six studies showed that PFA use was associated with using PAP for significantly more hours per night (range 0.7–1.3 hours more). PFA cohorts used PAP a greater proportion of nights and had a lower rate of mask leak. There was no difference in apnea-hypopnea index and self-reported measures of symptoms between study groups. Conclusions: PFA use was associated with improved adherence to PAP therapy. Although this conclusion is based on only two small trials and predominantly observational studies and therefore should be tested in large prospective trials, the PAFs are inexpensive, do not draw on health care resources, and show promise in improving PAP therapy for OSA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)769-777
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2019


  • Internet
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Patient compliance
  • Self-care
  • Self-management
  • Telemedicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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