The aging male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: Pulsatility and feedback

Johannes D. Veldhuis, Daniel M. Keenan, Peter Y. Liu, Ali Iranmanesh, Paul Y. Takahashi, Ajay X. Nehra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Aging results in insidious decremental changes in hypothalamic, pituitary and gonadal function. The foregoing three main anatomic loci of control are regulated by intermittent time-delayed signal exchange, principally via gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone/estradiol (Te/E2). A mathematical framework is required to embody these dynamics. The present review highlights integrative adaptations in the aging male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as assessed by recent objective ensemble models of the axis as a whole.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-22
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 5 2009


  • Approximate entropy
  • Deconvolution
  • Gonadotropin
  • Mechanism
  • Pulses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology


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