TGF-β loaded exosome enhances ischemic wound healing in vitro and in vivo

Ao Shi, Jialun Li, Xinyuan Qiu, Michael Sabbah, Soulmaz Boroumand, Tony Chieh-Ting Huang, Chunfeng Zhao, Andre Terzic, Atta Behfar, Steven L. Moran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rationale: With over seven million infections and $25 billion treatment cost, chronic ischemic wounds are one of the most serious complications in the United States. The controlled release of bioactive factor enriched exosome from finbrin gel was a promising strategy to promote wound healing. Methods: To address this unsolved problem, we developed clinical-grade platelets exosome product (PEP), which was incorporate with injectable surgical fibrin sealant (TISSEEL), to promote chronic wound healing and complete skin regeneration. The PEP characterization stimulated cellular activities and in vivo rabbit ischemic wound healing capacity of TISSEEL-PEP were performed and analyzed. Results: PEP, enriched with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), possessed exosomal characteristics including exosome size, morphology, and typical markers including CD63, CD9, and ALG-2-interacting protein X (Alix). In vitro, PEP significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration, tube formation, as well as skin organoid formation. Topical treatment of ischemic wounds with TISSEEL-PEP promoted full-thickness healing with the reacquisition of hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Superior to untreated and TISSEEL-only treated controls, TISSEEL-PEP drove cutaneous healing associated with collagen synthesis and restoration of dermal architecture. Furthermore, PEP promoted epithelial and vascular cell activity enhancing angiogenesis to restore blood flow and mature skin function. Transcriptome deconvolution of TISSEEL-PEP versus TISSEEL-only treated wounds prioritized regenerative pathways encompassing neovascularization, matrix remodeling and tissue growth. Conclusion: This room-temperature stable, lyophilized exosome product is thus capable of delivering a bioactive transforming growth factor beta to drive regenerative events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6616-6631
Number of pages16
Issue number13
StatePublished - 2021


  • Cell-free therapy
  • Exosome
  • Skin regeneration
  • Translational medicine
  • Wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)


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