Temporal Trends and Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Nonagenarians: A National Perspective

Kashish Goel, Tanush Gupta, Rajiv Gulati, Malcolm R. Bell, Dhaval Kolte, Sahil Khera, Deepak L. Bhatt, Charanjit S. Rihal, David R. Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study sought to assess temporal trends and outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in nonagenarians. Background: With increasing life expectancy, nonagenarians requiring PCI are increasing even though outcomes data are limited. Methods: The National Inpatient Sample was used to identify all hospitalizations for PCI in patients aged ≥90 years from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2014. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results: Nonagenarians (n = 69,271) constituted 0.9% of all PCI hospitalizations, increasing from 0.6% in 2003 to 2004 to 1.4% in 2013 to 2014 (ptrend < 0.001). From 2003–2004 to 2013–2014, the proportion of PCIs performed for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (23.1% to 30.9%) and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (49.6% to 52.6%) increased, whereas those for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) decreased (27.3% to 16.5%), respectively (ptrend < 0.001 for all). Overall in-hospital mortality after PCI for STEMI, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, and SIHD were 16.4%, 4.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. After multivariable risk adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and hospital-level characteristics, in-hospital mortality remained unchanged in STEMI (odds ratio: 1.04; 95% confidence interval: 0.98 to 1.11; ptrend = 0.20) and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (odds ratio: 0.99; 95% confidence interval: 0.91 to 1.08; ptrend = 0.82), but increased in SIHD (odds ratio: 1.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.44; ptrend = 0.04) from 2003 to 2004 to 2013 to 2014. The rates of bleeding and vascular complications decreased or remained stable in all 3 subgroups, whereas risk-adjusted incidence of stroke increased in patients with STEMI or SIHD. Conclusions: The rate of in-hospital mortality, major bleeding, vascular complications, and stroke after PCI in nonagenarians changed significantly from 2003 to 2014. This study provides a benchmark for discussion of PCI-related risks among physicians, patients, and families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1872-1882
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 24 2018


  • PCI
  • in-hospital mortality
  • nonagenarians
  • trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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