Introduction: Differentiation of calcification and calcium-containing tissue from blood products remains challenging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We developed a novel post-processing algorithm which creates both paramagnetic- and diamagnetic-specific SWI images generated from T2* weighted images using distinct “positive” and “negative” phase masks. Methods: 10 patients who had undergone clinical MRI scanning of the brain with a rapid echo planar based T2*-weighted EPI-GRE pulse sequence with evidence for either hemosiderin and/or calcifications were retrospectively identified. Complex raw k-space data from individual imaging coils were then extracted, reconstructed, and appropriately combined to produce magnitude and phase images using a phase preserving method. The final reconstructed images included the T2* EPI-GRE magnitude images, p-SWI and d-SWI images. Filtered phase images were also available for review. Correlation with CT scans and MR imaging appearance over time corroborated the composition of the voxels. Results: Differential “blooming” of diamagnetic and paramagnetic foci was readily identified on the corresponding p-SWI and d-SWI images and provided fast and reliable visual differentiation of diamagnetic from paramagnetic susceptibility effects by ascertaining which of the two images depicted the greatest “blooming” effect. Correlation with the available filtered phase maps was not necessary for differentiation of paramagnetic from diamagnetic image components. Conclusion: Clinical interpretation of SWI images can be further enhanced by creating specific p-SWI and d-SWI image pairs which contain greater visual information than the combination of standard p-SWI images and phase image.
- Susceptibility,Echo planar imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging