Prostate cancer (PCa) affects millions of men globally. Due to advances in understanding genomic landscapes and biological functions, the treatment of PCa continues to improve. Recently, various new classes of agents, which include next-generation androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors (abiraterone, enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide), bone-targeting agents (radium-223 chloride, zoledronic acid), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (olaparib, rucaparib, and talazoparib) have been developed to treat PCa. Agents targeting other signaling pathways, including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4/6, Ak strain transforming (AKT), wingless-type protein (WNT), and epigenetic marks, have successively entered clinical trials. Furthermore, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeting agents such as 177Lu-PSMA-617 are promising theranostics that could improve both diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic efficacy. Advanced clinical studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown limited benefits in PCa, whereas subgroups of PCa with mismatch repair (MMR) or CDK12 inactivation may benefit from ICIs treatment. In this review, we summarized the targeted agents of PCa in clinical trials and their underlying mechanisms, and further discussed their limitations and future directions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research