Purpose: Aberrant expression of T-cell coregulatory molecules has been investigated as a mechanism by which certain cancers may evade host immune surveillance. We evaluated expression of the T-cell coregulators B7-H1, B7-H3, and PD-1 in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder. Experimental Design: lmmunohistochemistryfor B7-H1, B7-H3, and PD-1 was done on paraffinembedded sections from 318 consecutive patients with UCC who underwent radical cystectomy. Expression was correlated with clinicopathologic outcomes and postoperative survival. Results: B7-H3 was widely expressed in UCC, as 222 of 314 (70.7%) tumors showed positive staining. Expression of B7-H3 in UCC was significantly increased compared with adjacent, nontumor urothelium, as a median of 70% of tumor cells expressed B7-H3, compared with 20% of cells in nontumor specimens (P < 0.001). The increase in B7-H3 expression was independent of tumor stage (P = 0.13). Expression of B7-H1 by UCC tumors (P < 0.001) and PD-1 by tumorinfiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.012) were significantly associated with increased pathologic stage. Patients who had received intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin before cystectomy tended to show increased expression of B7-H3 (P = 0.023) and PD-1 (P = 0.071) but were less likely to express B7-H1 (P = 0.027). Moreover, for the subset of patients with organ-confined disease (n = 167), B7-H1 expression independently predicted all-cause mortality after cystectomy (hazard ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-5.79; P > 0.001). Conclusions: B7-H3 is highly expressed in UCC across tumor stages, whereas B7-H1 and PD-1 expression are associated with advanced disease. B7-H1 expression predicts mortality after cystectomy for patients with organ-confined tumors. These molecules may represent novel diagnostic or prognostic markers, as well as therapeutic targets, for patients with UCC.
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