Survival Trends in Young Patients With Multiple Myeloma: A Focus on Racial-Ethnic Minorities

Sikander Ailawadhi, Abdel Ghani Azzouqa, David Hodge, Jordan Cochuyt, Prachi Jani, Salman Ahmed, Taimur Sher, Vivek Roy, Meghna Ailawadhi, Victoria R. Alegria, Rami Manochakian, Prakash Vishnu, Ashna Grover, Mays F. Abdulazeez, Aneel Paulus, Asher Chanan-Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM) have improved significantly over time. This is true overall for all patients as well as patient subgroups based on age and race/ethnicity. Despite this, disparities are noted in outcomes when looking at racial subgroups. Materials and Methods: We performed an analysis from the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to evaluate improvement in relative survival rates (RSRs) for young (≤ 40 years at the time of MM diagnosis) and older (> 40 years at the time of MM diagnosis) over time by race/ethnicity, specifically focusing on Hispanic patients with MM. Expected survival was estimated using the age- and gender-specific death rates from the United States population. RSR was provided as the ratio of the observed to expected survival at individual time points. Five-year and 10-year RSRs were calculated for patients based on treatments modalities available in various time periods. Results: We identified a total of 89,451 patients with MM in SEER, of which 1460 patients formed the young patients with MM (≤ 40 years) cohort. Five- and 10-year RSR improved significantly over time for all patients and older patients (> 40 years) by race (all P < .001). Evaluating the younger patients, RSR improved significantly for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, but not for Hispanics. This was true for the 5-year (P = .08) and 10-year (P = .13) RSRs. Conclusion: We report a lack of significant benefit in long-term outcomes for younger Hispanic patients with MM over time. This could be owing to multifactorial causes that need to be addressed to mitigate outcome disparities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)619-623
Number of pages5
JournalClinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2019


  • Age-related survival
  • Disparity
  • Inequity in healthcare
  • Outcomes
  • Time-related trend

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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