Objective To present our experience with surgical management of nephrolithiasis in patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH). Methods A retrospective chart review from 1994 to 2012 was performed to identify patients with diagnosis of PH. Results A total of 14 patients with PH were identified with a median follow-up of 18.6 years (range, 0.9-51 years). Median ages at initial symptom and subsequent diagnosis were 6.7 years (range, 1.1-35.5 years) and 0.42 years (range, 0-33.25 years), respectively. Patients underwent a total of 54 procedures at our institution, including ureteroscopy (27 [50%]), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (15 [28%]), shock wave lithotripsy (8 [15%]), and combined procedures (4 [7%]). Overall nonintraparenchymal stone-free rate after the first, second, and third procedures were 59%, 76%, and 78%, respectively. On average, 1.6 procedures (range, 1-4) were required to rid patients of symptomatic stones, which subsequently afforded them a mean of 3.62 years (range, 0.25-21.5 years) without the need for additional intervention. There were 6 Clavien grade ≥III complications in 4 patients, including immediate postoperative end-stage renal disease in 3 patients. Conclusion Despite optimal medical and surgical management, patients experience recurrent acute stone events requiring multiple urologic interventions. Significant complications such as end-stage renal disease can occur secondary to surgical intervention.
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