Surgical Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Complicated by Infective Endocarditis

Meher Oberoi, Hartzell V. Schaff, Rick A. Nishimura, Jeffrey B. Geske, Joseph A. Dearani, Steve R. Ommen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Infective endocarditis is a serious complication in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiac surgery is often necessary, however, literature assessing surgical outcomes is limited. Methods: From December 1995 to September 2018, 43 patients with a history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and native valve infective endocarditis underwent cardiac surgery at our institution. Relevant data were abstracted from medical records and analyzed. Results: Median age was 57 years (interquartile range, 45 to 67); 81% (n = 35) were male. Infective endocarditis was active in 21% of patients (n = 9) at the time of surgery; of these, the suspected origin of infection was orodental in 19% (n = 8). Significant mitral valve regurgitation was detected in 54% of patients (n = 23), and aortic valve regurgitation in 7% (n = 3). Septal myectomy was performed in 95% of patients (n = 41), with concomitant valve surgery in 58% (n = 25), including prosthetic replacement in 28% (n = 12). Two patients underwent double valve replacement without septal myectomy. Outflow gradients improved from a median 67 mm Hg (interquartile range, 34 to 97 mm Hg) to 9 mm Hg (interquartile range, 6 to 22 mm Hg). One inhospital death occurred because of uncontrollable pulmonary edema. As of last follow-up, 7 patients required reoperation, and the 5-year and 10-year cumulative incidences were 11% and 26%, respectively. Ten deaths occurred; overall survival probability at 5 and 10 years was 94% and 78%, respectively. Conclusions: Valvular complications of infective endocarditis add complexity to surgical management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is an increased need for concomitant valve repairs, prosthetic replacements, and reoperation. These data underscore the need for recognition of infection, especially after oral procedures, which preceded the majority of the active infective endocarditis cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)744-749
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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