Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Metastases in Long Bones

Indira Madani, Arjun Sahgal, Darby Erler, Bradley J. Stish, Kenneth R. Olivier, Sean S. Park, W. S.C. Eppinga, Enrica Seravalli, Kristin J. Redmond, Yilin Cao, Shankar Siva, David Chang, Timothy K. Nguyen, Melissa O'Neil, Matthias Guckenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To evaluate the cumulative incidence of fracture and local failure and associated risk factors after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for long bone metastases. Methods and Materials: Data from 111 patients with 114 metastases in the femur, humerus, and tibia treated with SBRT in 7 international centers between October 2011 and February 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed using a competing risk regression model. Results: The median follow-up was 21 months (range, 6-91 months). All but 1 patient had a Karnofsky performance status ≥70. There were 84 femur (73.7%), 26 humerus (22.8%), and 4 tibia (3.5%) metastases from prostate (45 [39.5%]), breast (22 [19.3%]), lung (15 [13.2%]), kidney (13 [11.4%]), and other (19 [16.6%]) malignancies. Oligometastases accounted for 74.8% of metastases and 28.1% were osteolytic. The most common total doses were 30 to 50 Gy in 5 daily fractions (50.9%). Eight fractures (5 in the femur, 2 in the tibia, and 1 in the humerus) were observed with a median time to fracture of 12 months (range, 0.8-33 months). In 6 out of 8 patients, fracture was not associated with local failure. The cumulative incidence of fracture was 3.5%, 6.1%, and 9.8% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. The cumulative incidence of local failure (9/110 metastases with imaging follow-up) was 5.7%, 7.2%, and 13.5% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, extraosseous disease extension was significantly associated with fracture (P = .001; subhazard ratio, 10.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-41.9) and local failure (P = .02; subhazard ratio, 7.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-44.7). Conclusions: SBRT for metastases in long bones achieved high rates of durable local metastasis control without an increased risk of fracture. Similar to spine SBRT, patients with extraosseous disease extension are at higher risk of local failure and fracture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)738-746
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 15 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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