Stepwise solubilization-based antigen removal for xenogeneic scaffold generation in tissue engineering

Maelene L. Wong, Janelle L. Wong, Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, Leigh G. Griffiths

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


The ability of residual antigens on decellularized tissue to elicit the immune response upon implantation motivates development of a more rigorous antigen removal (AR) process for xenogeneic scaffold generation. Antigen removal strategies promoting solubilization of hydrophilic proteins (predominantly cytoplasmic) enhance the reduction of hydrophilic antigenicity in bovine pericardium (BP); however, the diversity of protein antigens within a tissue necessitates development of AR strategies capable of addressing a spectrum of protein antigen solubilities. In the present study, methods for promoting solubilization of lipophilic proteins (predominantly membrane) were investigated for their ability to reduce lipophilic antigenicity of BP when applied as a second AR step following our previously described hydrophilic AR method. Bovine pericardium following AR (BP-AR) was assessed for residual hydrophilic and lipophilic antigenicity, removal of known lipophilic xenoantigens, tensile properties, and extracellular matrix structure and composition. Facilitating hydrophile solubilization (using dithiothreitol and potassium chloride) followed by lipophile solubilization (using amidosulfobetaine-14 (ASB-14)), in a two-step sequential, differential AR strategy, significantly reduces residual hydrophilic and lipophilic antigenicity of BP-AR beyond that achieved with either one-step hydrophilic AR or decellularization using 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate. Moreover, use of 1% (w/v) ASB-14 for lipophilic AR eliminates the two most critical known barriers to xenotransplantation (galactose- α(1,3)-galactose and major histocompatibility complex I)) from BP-AR without compromising the structure-function properties of the biomaterial. This study demonstrates the importance of a sequential, differential protein solubilization approach to reduce biomaterial antigenicity in the production of a xenogeneic scaffold for heart valve tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6492-6501
Number of pages10
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2013


  • Antigen removal
  • Decellularization
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Heart valve tissue engineering
  • Xenogeneic scaffold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


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