Staged surgical repair of pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and hypoplastic, confluent pulmonary arteries

J. S. Millikan, F. J. Puga, G. K. Danielson, H. V. Schaff, P. R. Julsrud, D. D. Mair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


In patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, hypoplasia of the central pulmonary arteries prevents single-stage complete repair. Over an interval of 8 1/2 years, 105 patients underwent establishment of continuity between the right ventricle and a hypoplastic central pulmonary arterial confluence (first stage). There were 12 hospital deaths (11%) and 11 late deaths before second-stage (complete) repair. Twenty-five patients await late evaluation. The remaining 57 individuals have had follow-up cardiac catheterization a mean of 33 months postoperatively. In 31 of these, final repair was deferred because of insufficient pulmonary arterial enlargement (14), restricted peripheral arborization (nine), or both (eight). The final 26 patients were accepted for second-stage repair, which has been performed in 24. Complete repair included ventricular septal defect closure (24), right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (18), relief of central pulmonary arterial stenosis (14), and ligation of systemic-pulmonary collateral arteries (10). The mean postrepair peak systolic right ventricular-left ventricular pressure ratio was 0.67 (range 0.32 to 1.0). One of these patients (4%) died in the hospital and there was one late death (4%) from sepsis after tricuspid valve replacement. Three patients were lost to follow-up; the remaining 19 patients are in functional Class I or II. A two-stage surgical approach is highly successful in those patients whose pulmonary arteries are too hypoplastic to allow a single-stage repair.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)818-825
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1986

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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