The therapeutic goals for the patient with angina pectoris are to minimize the frequency and severity of angina and to improve functional capacity at a reasonable cost and with as few side effects as possible. An integrated approach necessitates attention to conditions that might be aggravating angina, such as anemia or hypertension. Alterations in life-style and personal habits, such as cessation of cigarette smoking, are often necessary and should be continually reinforced by the physician. Certain concomitant diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, may influence the selection of drug therapy. Nitrates, β-adrenergic blockers, and calcium entry blockers are the major classes of drugs that can be used alone or in combination in a program that is designed for the individual patient.
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