Spirituality in tobacco dependence: A Mayo Clinic survey

David McFadden, Ivana T. Croghan, Kathryn M. Piderman, Carl Lundstrom, Darrell R. Schroeder, J. Taylor Hays

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Context: With widespread interest in natural remedies and "wholistic" treatments, there has been a renewed focus on the impact of spirituality related alternative therapy for many current chronic diseases. Objective: To assess the potential impact of spiritual beliefs on lifestyle choices such as tobacco use, we conducted a patient survey. Design/Setting: This cross-section study was conducted using a 27-question survey of patients seen at the Mayo Clinic over a 14-week period. Patients: We invited all patients (smokers and nonsmokers) seen in several Mayo Clinic divisions to participate in this voluntary survey. Interventions: The survey included demographic information, history of tobacco use or nonuse, and assessment of spirituality. Main Outcome Measure: Among the 501 patients who participated, 370 were nonsmokers and 131 were smokers. Compared with smokers, nonsmokers more often participated in religious activities such as regular weekly church attendance (48% vs. 24%), daily prayer, and Bible study (49% vs. 24%; P < .001). Current smoking was negatively correlated with religious activities. However, after adjustment for demographic facdtors, there was no significant difference in intrinsic spirituality (importance of religion) between the two groups (P < .130). Result: Nonsmokers are more likely to engage in religious activities such as prayer, Bible study, and regular church attendance. Further studies may be helpful to clearly define the potential impact of spirituality on smoking cessation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)162-167
Number of pages6
JournalExplore: The Journal of Science and Healing
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2011


  • smoking cessation
  • spirituality
  • tobacco dependence
  • wholistic treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Analysis
  • Chiropractics
  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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