Sociotechnical Intervention for Improved Delivery of Preventive Cardiovascular Care to Rural Communities: Participatory Design Approach

Michelle Partogi, Simon Gaviria-Valencia, Mateo Alzate Aguirre, Nancy J. Pick, Huzefa M. Bhopalwala, Barbara A. Barry, Vinod C. Kaggal, Christopher G. Scott, Maya E. Kessler, Matthew M. Moore, Jay D. Mitchell, Rajeev Chaudhry, Robert P. Bonacci, Adelaide M. Arruda-Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend antiplatelet and statin therapies as well as blood pressure control and tobacco cessation for secondary prevention in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs). However, these strategies for risk modification are underused, especially in rural communities. Moreover, resources to support the delivery of preventive care to rural patients are fewer than those for their urban counterparts. Transformative interventions for the delivery of tailored preventive cardiovascular care to rural patients are needed. Objective: A multidisciplinary team developed a rural-specific, team-based model of care intervention assisted by clinical decision support (CDS) technology using participatory design in a sociotechnical conceptual framework. The model of care intervention included redesigned workflows and a novel CDS technology for the coordination and delivery of guideline recommendations by primary care teams in a rural clinic. Methods: The design of the model of care intervention comprised 3 phases: problem identification, experimentation, and testing. Input from team members (n=35) required 150 hours, including observations of clinical encounters, provider workshops, and interviews with patients and health care professionals. The intervention was prototyped, iteratively refined, and tested with user feedback. In a 3-month pilot trial, 369 patients with ASCVDs were randomized into the control or intervention arm. Results: New workflows and a novel CDS tool were created to identify patients with ASCVDs who had gaps in preventive care and assign the right care team member for delivery of tailored recommendations. During the pilot, the intervention prototype was iteratively refined and tested. The pilot demonstrated feasibility for successful implementation of the sociotechnical intervention as the proportion of patients who had encounters with advanced practice providers (nurse practitioners and physician assistants), pharmacists, or tobacco cessation coaches for the delivery of guideline recommendations in the intervention arm was greater than that in the control arm. Conclusions: Participatory design and a sociotechnical conceptual framework enabled the development of a rural-specific, team-based model of care intervention assisted by CDS technology for the transformation of preventive health care delivery for ASCVDs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere27333
JournalJournal of medical Internet research
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022


  • atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases
  • community health
  • participatory design
  • rural health
  • secondary prevention
  • sociotechnical
  • team-based care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics


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