Introduction: Data on cigarette smoking prevalence among Alaska Native and American Indian (ANAI) people are limited to cross-sectional studies or specific subpopulations. Using data from the Alaska Education and Research toward Health (EARTH) Study 10-year follow-up, this study assessed patterns of smoking from baseline and factors associated with current use. Aims and Methods: EARTH Study urban south central ANAI participants (N = 376; 73% women) provided questionnaire data on smoking at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression assessed whether gender, cultural factors (Tribal identity, language spoken in the home), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), baseline smoking status, and baseline cigarettes per day (CPD) were associated with current smoking at follow-up. Results: Current smoking was 27% and 23% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Of baseline smokers, 60% reported smoking at follow-up (77% men, 52% women). From multivariable-adjusted analyses, the odds of current smoking at follow-up were lower among women than men, those who never or formerly smoked versus currently smoked at baseline, and smoking <10 CPD compared with ≥10 CPD at baseline. PHQ-9 score or cultural variables were not associated with smoking at follow-up. Smoking fewer baseline CPD was associated with former smoking status (ie, quitting) at follow-up among women, but not men. Conclusions: Our project is among the first to longitudinally explore smoking within an ANAI cohort. While we observed persistent smoking during a 10-year period, there were important differences by gender and CPD in quitting. These differences may be important to enhance the reach and efficacy of cessation interventions for ANAI people. Implications: This study contributes novel longitudinal information on cigarette smoking prevalence during a 10-year period among Alaska Native and American Indian (ANAI) people. Prior data on smoking prevalence among ANAI people are limited to cross-sectional studies or specific subpopulations. Our project is among the first to longitudinally explore smoking prevalence within an ANAI cohort. We observed persistent smoking during a 10-year period. The study also contributes information on differences by gender and cigarettes smoked per day in quitting. These findings have implications for enhancing the reach and efficacy of cessation interventions for ANAI people.
ASJC Scopus subject areas