Smoking Outcome Expectancies: Factor Structure, Predictive Validity, and Discriminant Validity

David W. Wetter, Stevens S. Smith, Susan L. Kenford, Douglas E. Jorenby, Michael C. Fiore, Richard D. Hurt, Kenneth P. Offord, Timothy B. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

172 Scopus citations


Recent models of addiction posit that drug outcome expectancies are influential determinants of drug use. The current research examines the dimensional structure, predictive validity, and discriminant validity of expectancies for cigarette smoking in a prospective study. There was a good fit between the factor structure of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire and the observed data. In addition, the internal consistency of each scale was satisfactory. Moreover, there was considerable evidence for the predictive and discriminant validity of expectancies. Expectancies of positive outcomes (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite-weight control) predicted withdrawal severity. Negative reinforcement expectancies and expectancies of negative consequences predicted cessation success. Predictive relations remained significant after controlling for related constructs: negative affect, stress, and dependence measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)801-811
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Abnormal Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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