Sit-to-Stand 3 months after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: Comparison of self-selected and constrained conditions

Sara J. Farquhar, Kenton R. Kaufman, Lynn Snyder-Mackler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


After unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA), rehabilitation specialists often constrain knee angles or foot positions during sit-to-stand, to encourage increased weight bearing through the operated limb. Biomechanical studies often constrain limb position during sit-to-stand in an effort to reduce variability. Differences between self-selecting or constraining position are unknown in persons after TKA. Twenty-six subjects with unilateral TKA participated in motion analysis. Subjects performed the sit-to-stand using a self-selected position (ssSTS); next, trials were collected in a constrained condition (ccSTS), where both knees were positioned with the tibia vertical, perpendicular to the floor. Repeated measures ANOVA (limb × condition) assessed differences between limbs and between conditions. Subjects used greater hip flexion bilaterally during ccSTS (91°) compared to ssSTS (87°; p = 0.001) and knee flexion on the non-operated limb was greater during ssSTS (84°) compared to ccSTS (82°; p = 0.018). The ccSTS resulted in larger extensor moments on the non-operated limb at the hip (ssSTS -0.473, ccSTS -0.521; p = 0.021) and knee (ssSTS -0.431, ccSTS -0.457; p = 0.001) compared to the operated limb. The ccSTS exacerbated the asymmetries at the hip and knee compared to ssSTS, and did not improve use of the operated limb. Reliance on the non-operated limb may put them at risk for progression of osteoarthritis in other joints of the lower extremities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-191
Number of pages5
JournalGait and Posture
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2009


  • Altered movement pattern
  • Sit-to-stand
  • Total knee arthroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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