Sex as an independent variable in the measurement of satiation: a retrospective cohort study

Maria D. Hurtado, Lizeth Cifuentes, Alejandro Campos, Alan De La Rosa, Ekta Kapoor, Stephanie S. Faubion, Donald D. Hensrud, Michael Camilleri, Andres Acosta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Satiation is a key component of food intake regulation as it brings an eating episode to an end. The effect of sex on satiation measurement has not been characterized. Objective: To assess the effects of biological variables on satiation. Design: Retrospective cohort study. We included 959 participants (mean age 39 [SD 12] years; 70.7% female, and BMI 33 kg/m2 [8]) who had measurements of satiation with a nutrient-drink test to assess volume to fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerated volume (MTV), and/or an ad libitum meal test to assess calories consumed to fullness (CTF). We performed univariate and multiple regression analyses to estimate the contribution of sex to VTF, MTV, and CTF, compared to other biological variables, such as age, weight, height, BMI, waist-to-hip circumference (W/H), and lean mass percentage (LM%), that are known to affect these parameters. Results: Females had higher BMI, W/H, and LM%. VTF, MTV, and CTF were lower in females: 704 [323] vs. 783 [328] mL, p = 0.001; 1226 [384] vs. 1419 [410] mL, p < 0.001; and 871 [291] vs. 1086 [326] kcal, p < 0.001; respectively. Sex was a strong and independent predictor of VTF, MTF and CTF: parameter estimate [PE] = −80.8, p = 0.006; PE = −124.2, p = 0.0007; and PE = −110, p = 0.001; respectively. Conclusions: Sex has a strong effect on satiation measured by VTF, MTV, and CTF, even after adjusting for other biological factors known to affect these parameters. Females seem to integrate intra-meal inhibition signals to consume fewer calories unrelated to body size or composition. Clinical trial registration: None.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2156-2162
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Sex as an independent variable in the measurement of satiation: a retrospective cohort study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this